May 28, 2024

Plywood 101: Everything You Need to Know About Grades, Sizes and Types

6 min read
Discover everything you need to know about plywood grades, sizes, and types in our comprehensive guide.
Different types of plywood with labels indicating their grades

Different types of plywood with labels indicating their grades

If you’re new to woodworking or construction, plywood might seem like a confusing material. With a variety of grades, sizes, and types available, it can be hard to know where to start. But fear not! This article will guide you through everything you need to know about plywood, from its different grades and sizes to its various types and applications.

Understanding Plywood: Grades, Sizes, and Types

Plywood is a versatile type of engineered wood made from thin layers of wood veneer, glued together with strong adhesive. Plywood is popular in construction and woodworking due to its strength, durability, and affordable price. However, not all plywood is created equal. There are several factors to consider when choosing plywood, including its grade, size, and type.

The grade of plywood refers to its quality and appearance. Plywood is graded based on the number of defects, such as knots and voids, in the wood veneer layers. The highest grade is A, which has no visible defects, while the lowest grade is D, which has numerous defects. It’s important to choose the appropriate grade of plywood for your project to ensure its structural integrity and aesthetic appeal.

Demystifying Plywood Grades

Plywood grades are used to indicate the quality and appearance of the wood. The higher the grade, the better the quality of the plywood. The most commonly used grades of plywood are A, B, C, and D.

A Guide to Grade A Plywood

Grade A plywood is the highest quality plywood available and is free from any defects. It has a smooth, uniform surface and is perfect for applications that require a high-quality finish, such as furniture making or cabinetry. It’s also a good choice for veneering and laminating.

What You Need to Know About Grade B Plywood

Grade B plywood is similar to Grade A, but with minor defects such as small knots and splits. It’s a good choice for applications that don’t require a perfect finish, such as roofing or flooring. Grade B plywood is also commonly used for sheathing and wall framing.

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The Pros and Cons of Grade C and D Plywood

Grade C and D plywood are lower quality and have more defects than A and B grades. Grade C plywood is suitable for applications such as shelving, packing crates, and subflooring, while Grade D plywood is used mainly for rough construction work, like flooring and roofing. While these grades are not as high quality as A and B, they are more affordable and can be suitable for many projects depending on their specific needs.

Understanding Plywood Thickness

Another important factor to consider when choosing plywood is its thickness. Plywood thickness can range from 1/8 inch to 1 1/4 inch, with the most common thicknesses being 1/4 inch, 1/2 inch, and 3/4 inch. The thickness you choose will depend on the specific application and the amount of weight the plywood needs to support. Thicker plywood is generally stronger and more durable, but also heavier and more expensive. It’s important to choose the right thickness for your project to ensure its stability and longevity.

Plywood Sizes: Which One is Right for You?

Another important factor to consider when buying plywood is its size. The standard size for most plywood sheets is 4 x 8 feet, but you can also find 5 x 5 feet and 3 x 7 feet sheets. The size of plywood you choose will depend on the size of your project and the amount of material you need.

Standard Plywood Sizes: 4 x 8 Feet, 5 x 5 Feet, and 3 x 7 Feet

The most commonly used plywood size is 4 x 8 feet, which is ideal for most construction and woodworking projects. 5 x 5 feet sheets are often used for European cabinetry and furniture, while 3 x 7 feet sheets are great for small projects or tight spaces.

Other Plywood Sizes You Should Consider

Other plywood sizes you might consider include 2 x 4 feet sheets, which are good for small DIY projects, and oversized sheets, perfect for larger projects where fewer seams are preferred.

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It’s important to note that the thickness of plywood can also vary. The most common thicknesses are 1/4 inch, 1/2 inch, and 3/4 inch, but you can also find thinner or thicker sheets depending on your needs. Thicker plywood is generally stronger and more durable, but it can also be heavier and more difficult to work with. Consider the weight and strength requirements of your project when choosing the thickness of your plywood.

Exploring the Different Types of Plywood

There are several different types of plywood available, each with their own unique properties and applications.

Softwood Plywood: What It Is and When to Use It

Softwood plywood is made from softwood trees such as pine, spruce, or fir. It’s typically less expensive than hardwood plywood and is suitable for applications such as roofing, sheathing, and subflooring. Softwood plywood is also commonly used for furniture frames and interior furnishings.

Hardwood Plywood: A Versatile and Durable Option

Hardwood plywood is made from hardwood trees such as birch, oak, or maple. It’s known for its durability and strength and is perfect for applications that require a high-quality finish, like cabinetry, furniture, and flooring. Hardwood plywood is also suitable for veneering and laminating.

Marine Plywood: The Ultimate Water-Resistant Plywood

Marine plywood is a special type of plywood designed for use in water-intensive applications. It’s made with waterproof adhesive and is resistant to rot, warping, and insects. Marine plywood is commonly used in boats, docks, and other outdoor structures.

Structural Plywood: The Strongest Plywood for Your Project

Structural plywood is a heavy-duty plywood designed for use in building and construction projects. It’s made with strong and durable adhesive and is suitable for load-bearing applications like roofing, flooring, and wall framing.

Fire-Rated Plywood: Keeping Your Project Safe

Fire-rated plywood is treated with special chemicals to make it resistant to fire. It’s commonly used in construction projects that require fire-rated materials, such as walls, ceilings, and floors.

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Decorative Plywood: Adding Style to Your Project

Decorative plywood is a type of plywood that’s designed with a decorative surface. It’s often used in furniture making and cabinetry and is available in a variety of patterns and colors. Decorative plywood is also great for DIY projects and can add style and personality to your home or office.

MDF Plywood: A Budget-Friendly Option

MDF plywood is made from medium-density fiberboard and is a cost-effective alternative to traditional plywood. It’s commonly used in cabinetry and furniture making and is available in a variety of thicknesses.

Bamboo Plywood: A Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Choice

Bamboo plywood is a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative to traditional plywood. It’s made from bamboo, which is a fast-growing and renewable resource. Bamboo plywood is known for its strength and durability and is suitable for a variety of applications, including flooring, cabinetry, and furniture making. It’s also resistant to moisture and insects, making it a great choice for outdoor projects.


Choosing plywood for your project doesn’t have to be confusing. By understanding different grades, sizes, and types of plywood, you can make an informed decision about which one is right for you. Whether you’re building a boat or a bookshelf, there’s a plywood available to meet your needs.

It’s important to note that plywood is a versatile material that can be used for a variety of projects beyond just construction. Many artists and designers use plywood as a medium for their creations, as it can be easily cut, shaped, and painted. Additionally, plywood is often used in the manufacturing of furniture and cabinetry due to its strength and durability.

When selecting plywood for your project, it’s also important to consider the environmental impact. Look for plywood that is certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which ensures that the wood used in the plywood comes from responsibly managed forests. Choosing FSC-certified plywood can help reduce deforestation and promote sustainable forestry practices.

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